Background - Although Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder, few cases of VWD combined with coagulation defects have been reported. This study sought to determine the clinical and laboratory features of VWD combined with other coagulation defects and to evaluate the prevalence of this combination in Iran.
Material and methods - A total of 3,120 cases were evaluated to confirm a suspected diagnosis of VWD. Clinical and laboratory phenotypes, including bleeding scores (BS), were also obtained.
Results - A diagnosis of VWD was established for 130 patients. Following their further characterisation, a subgroup of 25 patients with a dual or triple combination of VWD with coagulation defects (FXII, FXI, FIX, FVII, FV, and lupus anticoagulant) was identified. Their laboratory and clinical data were compared with those of healthy controls (n=25) and VWD-only patients (n=25).
No differences were observed for VWF-related laboratory measurements between the combined deficient cases and those with VWD only, results being expectedly lower than in healthy controls. The median BS of combined patients was 4, higher than for VWD-only and control groups (median BS 3 and 1; p=0.55 and p<0.001, respectively).
Discussion - The prevalence of combined coagulation defects was 19.2% among all the VWD cases. The co-occurrence of VWD with clotting factor deficiencies may lead to more severe clinical presentations. To ensure adequate treatment, combined defects should be considered in VWD patients presenting with a more severe bleeding phenotype than expected or with a poor response to treatment.
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