The outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is significantly influenced by the degree of HLA histocompatibility between donor and recipient. To provide shared indications for required histocompatibility testing and interpretation before HSCT, the Italian Society for Immunogenetics and Transplantation Biology (Associazione Italiana di Immunogenetica e Biologia dei Trapianti [AIBT]) gathered members and created a working group to discuss and develop recommendations for histocompatibility assessment in HSCT.
After a review of the literature and multiple panel discussions, AIBT developed up-to-date recommendations for the resolution levels of HLA typing, histocompatibility definitions of patients and donors, importance of anti-HLA antibodies, and significance of NK alloreactivity, which are reported in this document. These recommendations have been shared with the Italian Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation (Gruppo Italiano per il Trapianto di Midollo Osseo, cellule staminali emopoietiche e terapia cellulare [GITMO]) and the Italian National Center for Transplantation (Centro Nazionale Trapianti [CNT]). Notably, the increased use of HLA-mismatched transplantation (i.e., mismatched unrelated, haploidentical) in recent years has made these indications even more relevant for the standardization and improvement of quality of care.
This document represents a useful instrument for health care workers involved in the field of HSCT, enhancing synergy with transplant physicians and enabling greater optimization of the available resources.
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