Background - The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of ABO and RhD blood group phenotypes in the general population in the Republic of Croatia and among hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19.
Materials and methods - Data on ABO and RhD blood groups of all blood donors in Croatia (who donated blood during the period 2015-2020) and patients and pregnant women tested at the Croatian Institute of Transfusion Medicine during the 2-year period, 2019-2020, were obtained from the e-Delphyn blood bank information system. A total of 614,673 results were analyzed in this group. The other group consisted of 780 COVID-19 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. Data are presented as total number and percentages and a comparison of proportions test was performed.
Results - The most frequent ABO phenotype in the general population is A (38%), followed by O (37%), B (18%) and AB (7%). RhD positive individuals accounted for 81% of the general population and RhD negative for the other 19%. Among COVID-19 patients, phenotype A was the most frequent (42%), followed by phenotypes O (32%), B (17%) and AB (9%). Thus blood group A was significantly more common among COVID-19 patients than among the general population, whereas blood group O was significantly less frequent.
Discussion - This study provides the first official results of the distribution of ABO and RhD blood group phenotypes in the general population in Croatia. Moreover, this study confirms other researchers’ observations about the predominance of the A blood group phenotype among COVID-19 patients.
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