Patient blood management (PBM) is a multimodal, multidisciplinary approach adopted to limit the use and the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in all at-risk patients with the aim of improving their clinical outcomes. Although PBM usually refers to surgical patients, its clinical use has gradually evolved over the last few years and it now also refers to medical conditions. This review will critically analyse the current knowledge on the use of PBM programmes in surgical and non-surgical patients.
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