Blood Transfusion - 3 2011 (July - September)
Antibody elutions in Thai patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test
 
Authors:  Oytip Nathalang, Pramote Sriwanitchrak, Jintana Tubrod, Pawinee Kupatawintu
Pages:  306-310
To cite this article:  Blood Transfus 2011; 9: 306-10
Doi:  10.2450/2010.0051-10
Published online:  13/09/2010

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Background. The direct antiglobulin test is performed to determine whether an anaemic patient with evidence of haemolysis has autoimmune or alloimmune haemolytic anaemia.
Materials and methods. We determined the antibody specificity of eluted IgG antibodies from patients’ blood samples with a positive direct antiglobulin test. Overall, 134 Thai patients were included in this study. EDTA blood samples were obtained from recently transfused patients, patients with unexplained anaemia and patients who had serum antibodies detected during routine pre-transfusion tests from different hospital blood banks. These complicated samples were sent to the National Blood Centre of the Thai Red Cross Society for investigation and to find compatible blood components. Each blood sample underwent a direct antiglobulin test with the gel technique using polyspecific antihuman globulin and mononospecific anti-IgG and anti-C3d. Acid eluates were prepared from the samples for which the direct antiglobulin test was positive and the specificities of the eluted antibodies were determined by the gel technique.
Results. Of the samples tested, 101 showed a positive direct antiglobulin test result (75.4%) using polyspecific antihuman globulin sera whereas only 95 samples (70.9%) were positive with anti-IgG or anti-IgG and anti-C3d. Moreover, 54 of 95 eluates (56.8%) were positive for antibody screening and tested with the reagent panel cells. Twenty-one eluates had specific alloantibodies, which were concordant with the findings in the patients’ sera and all patients had a history of blood transfusion. Additionally, 33 eluates contained pan-agglutinins. Interestingly, alloantibodies could be determined using titration studies in 5 of 26 eluates with pan-agglutinins. 
Conclusion. Although the direct antiglobulin test is not routinely performed in pre-transfusion screening, this test and elution studies would be useful in patients with a history of previous transfusions, and in those for whom compatible blood cannot be found.
Key words: eluate, positive direct antiglobulin test, Thai patients.
  
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